Carbohydrates (sugars or saccharides) Tutorial
- Carbohydrates are compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
- General formula of carbohydrates is Cx(H2O)y, or, CxH2yOy.
- Carbohydrates are also known as sugars or saccharides.
- The most common simple carbohydrates have either:
⚛ 5 carbon atoms (pentoses)
⚛ 6 carbon atoms (hexoses)
- A monosaccharide is made up of one sugar (mono means 1).
- A disaccharide is made up of two simple sugars chemically joined together (di means 2).
- A polysaccharide is made up of many simple sugars chemically joined together (poly means many).
- Monosaccharides contain the hydroxyl (alcohol, OH) functional group.
- Disaccharides and polysaccharides contain both the hydroxyl (alcohol, OH) functional group and an ether or glycosidic link (R-O-R′) between two simple sugar molecules.
- Two monosaccharides react in a condensation reaction producing a disaccharide and water.