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Introduction to Chemistry

Problem Solving Skills
          Problem Solving in Chemistry
Practical Skills
          Safety in the Laboratory
          Scientific Method
              Experimental Design
          Writing Laboratory Reports
              Plotting Points on a Graph
              Drawing the Line of Best Fit
              Predictions from Graphs (extrapolation & interpolation)
              Accuracy and Precision
              Experimental Errors
Maths for Chemistry Students
          Significant Figures
          Scientific (exponential) Notation
          Temperature Conversions
          Mass Conversions
          Volume Conversions
          Energy Conversions
          Density Calculations
Classification of Matter
          Pure Substances and Mixtures
          Elements and Compounds
          History of the Elements
          Metals and Non-Metals
Chemical Reactions
          Physical and Chemical Changes
          Types of Chemical Reactions
Periodic Table
          History of the Periodic Table
          Introduction to the Modern Periodic Table
          Trends in Electron Configuration
          Trends in Ionization Energy
          Trends in Atomic Radius
          Trends in Electronegativity
          Trends in Group 1 (IA)
          Trends in Group 2 (IIA)
          Trends in Group 17 (VIIA)
          Trends in Period 2
          Trends in Period 3
Atomic Structure
          Brief History of Atomic Theory
          Electron Configuration
          Quantum Numbers
      Evidence for Electronic Configuration
          First Ionization Energy
Chemical Formula
          Naming Ionic Compounds
          Writing Ionic Formula
          Name and Formula of Covalent Compounds
          Molecular Formula
          Empirical and Molecular Formula
              Empirical Formula Experiment: Magnesium Oxide
          2-Dimensional (full display) Structural Formula
          Condensed Structural Formula (semi-structural formula)
          Skeletal Formula
Chemical Equations
          Balancing Chemical Equations
          Writing Precipitation Reaction Equations
Stoichiometry (Chemical Calculations)
          Relative Molecular Mass (Formula Weight)
          Calculating Percentage (Percent) Composition
          Definitions of a Mole
              Mole-Number of Particle Calculations
              Mass-Mole Calculations
              Molar Gas Volume Calculations
          Molarity of Solutions
              Dilution Calculations
              Dilution Factor
          Reaction Calculations: Mass and Moles
          Limiting Reagents and Reactants in Excess
          Lewis Structures (electron dot diagrams)
          Shapes of Molecules
          Electronegativity and Bond Polarity
          Molecule Polarity
          Intramolecular Forces
                Metallic Bonding
                Ionic Bonding
                Covalent Bonding
          Intermolecular Forces
                Melting and Boiling Point

Organic (Carbon) Chemistry

      Nomenclature (Naming)
          Introduction to IUPAC Naming for Organic Compounds
          Introduction to Functional Groups
          Hydrocarbon Nomenclature
            Straight-Chain Alkanes
            Branched-Chain Alkanes
            Straight-Chain Alkenes
            Straight-Chain Alkynes
          Aldehyde Nomenclature
            Straight-Chain Alkanals
          Ketone Nomenclature
            Straight-Chain Alkanones
          Alcohol Nomenclature
            Straight-Chain Alkanols
            Branched-Chain Alkanols
            Straight-Chain Alkanediols
            Classification of Alkanols (alcohols)
          Haloalkane (alkyl halide) Nomenclature
            Straight-Chain Haloalkanes (alkyl halides)
          Carboxylic acids Nomenclature
          Straight-Chain Alkanoic Acids
          Esters Nomenclature
          Simple Esters
          Amine Nomenclature
          Straight-Chain Primary Alkanamines
          Amide Nomenclature
          Straight-Chain Primary Alkanamides
          Structural (Constitutional) Isomers
            Structural Isomers of Alkanes
            Structural Isomers of Alkenes
            Structural Isomers of Haloalkanes
          Cis-Trans (Geometric Isomers)
            cis-trans (Geometric) Isomers of Alkenes
          Combustion of Hydrocarbons
          Halogenation of Hydrocarbons
          Hydrohalogenation of Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
          Hydration of Alkenes to Alkanols (alcohols)
          Oxidation of Alkenes
          Combustion of Alcohols (alkanols)
          Oxidation of Alkanols (alcohols)
          Dehydration of Alkanols (alcohols)
          Preparation and Naming of Esters (Esterification)
          Substitution Reactions of Haloalkanes (alkyl halides)
          Polymers and Polymerization
          Addition Polymerisation
              Polythene (polyethylene)
              Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
          Condensation Polymerisation
              Polyamides (Nylons)
          Reaction Schemes for Organic Chemistry
      Properties and Uses
          Alkanols (alcohols)
          Carboxylic (alkanoic) Acids
          Ethene (ethylene)
      Aromatic Compounds
          Benzene Structure

Biochemistry (Biological Chemistry)

          Carbohydrates (sugars)
          Lipids (fats and oils)
          Amino Acids
          Reducing & Non-reducing Sugars
          Chemistry of Blood

Inorganic Chemistry (Transition Metal Chemistry)

          Transition Metal Properties
          Ligands and Complex Ions
Solid-State Chemistry
          Silicates: Structure and Formula

Physical Chemistry

Gas Laws
          Gay-Lussac's Law of Combining Gas Volumes
          Avogadro's Principle
          Boyle's Law (Mariotte's Law)
          Charles' Law
          Combined Gas Equation
          Ideal Gas Law
          Kinetic Theory of Gases
          Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures
          Graham's Laws of Effusion and Diffusion
          Henry's Laws (gas solubility)
Thermochemistry (Energy)
          Defining Enthalpy Change
          Energy Profiles (diagrams)
          Manipulating Enthalpy Change Terms
          Hess's Law (Additivity of Heats of Reaction)
          Heat (Enthalpy) of Formation and Reaction
          Bond Energy and Heat of Reaction
          Heat (Enthalpy) of Combustion
          Latent Heat (Enthalpy)
          Heat Capacity Calculations

      Reaction Calorimetry (solutions)
          Heat (Enthalpy) of Reaction
          Heat (Enthalpy) of Solution
          Heat (Enthalpy) of Neutralisation

      Calorimetry (electrical)

          Fuel Definitions

Chemical Kinetics
          Rate of Reaction
          Kinetic Energy (Maxwell-Boltzman) Distribution
          Using Rate Law
          Determining Rate Law
          Oxidation and Reduction Concepts
          Oxidation Numbers (States)
          Writing half-equations (for simple ions)
          Writing half-equations (for aqueous solutions)
          Redox Reaction Concepts
          Writing Redox Equations
          Eo: oxidation & reduction
          Eo: redox reactions
          Spontaneous vs Non-spontaneous Redox Reactions
          Electrolyte Strength
          Quantity of Electricity (charge) Calculations
          Electrical Energy Calculations
          Displacement Reactions (activity series)
          Voltaic (Galvanic) Cells
              Galvanic Cell Diagrams
                  Lead-Acid Batteries
              Fuel Cells
          Electrolytic Cell Concepts
              Electrolysis of Molten Salts
              Electrolysis of Aqueous Salt Solutions
              Electroplating Concepts
                  Faraday Laws of Electrolysis
      also see Metallurgy and Industrial Chemistry sections below
Advanced Electrochemistry
          Nernst Equation
          Equilibrium Concepts
          Le Chatelier's Principle
              Solubility & Le Chatelier's Principle
          Mass-Action Expression (Q)
          Law of Chemical Equilibrium
          Equilibrium Constants (K)
              R.I.C.E. (I.C.E.) Tables and K Calculations
          K and Extent of Reaction
          K and Temperature
          K and Reverse Reactions
          K and Stoichiometry
              Ion Product for Water (Kw)
              Acid Dissociation Constants (Ka)
              Base Dissociation Constants (Kb)
              Solubility Products (Ksp)
              KP and Kc
          Q vs K : predicting direction of reaction
          Chemistry of Blood
          Uses and Production of Ammonia (Haber Process)
          Manufacture and Uses of Sulfuric Acid
Acids and Bases
Acid and Base Concepts
          Properties of Acids and Bases
          Definitions and Properties of Acids and Bases
          pH Scale Concepts
              pH Calculations for acids
              [H+] Calculations for acids
          pOH Concepts
              pOH Calculations for bases
              [OH-] Calculations for bases
          Strength of Acids
              pH of Strong Acids
              Hydrogen Ion Concentration of Strong Acids
              Hydroxide Ion Concentration of Strong Acids
              pOH of Strong Acids
            Weak Acids (Ka)
          Strength of Bases
              pOH of Strong Bases
              Hydroxide Ion Concentration of Strong Bases
              pH of Strong Bases
              Hydrogen Ion Concentration of Strong Bases
          Weak Bases (Kb)
          Polyprotic Weak Acid Concepts
          Polyprotic Strong Acid Concepts
          Strength of Conjugate Acids and Bases
Acid and Base Reactions
          Neutralisation Reactions
              Acidic, Basic, Neutral Aqueous Solutions
              pH of Aqueous Salt Solutions
          Proton Transfer Reactions
          Buffer Concepts
         (see also Acid-Base Titrations, Volumetric Analysis, below)
Nuclear Chemistry
              Isotope Stability
              Properties and Uses of Radiation and Isotopes
          Relative Atomic Mass
              Mass Spectroscopy (isotopes)
          Nuclear Decay
          Half-Life Definitions and Calculations
          Uses of Carbon-14 for Dating
          Uses of radioisotopes in Smoke Detectors
      Concentration of Solutions
          Solutions Concepts
          Mass Fraction and Mass Percent (w/w)
          Weight/Volume Percentage (w/v)
          Parts per Million (ppm)
          Mole Fraction and Mole Percent
          Weight Ratio Percentage
      Properties of Solutions
      Colligative Properties
          Raoult's Law
          Freezing Point Depression & Boiling Point Elevation
          Osmotic Pressure
Surface Chemistry
          Surface Tension
          Capillary Action
          Soaps and Saponification
          Synthetic Detergents

Analytical Chemistry

Gas Tests
          Gas Preparation and Tests
Gravimetric Analysis
          Solubility Rules
          Precipitation Reaction Equations
          Solubility Products (Ksp)
          Gravimetric Analysis
Volumetric Analysis (Titrations)
          Standard Solutions
          Titration Techniques
    Acid - Base Titrations (direct titrations)
          Acid Base Titration Calculations
          Acid Base Titration Curves (graphs)
          Strong Monoprotic Acid - Strong Base Titration Curve Calculations
          Strong Diprotic Acid - Strong Base Titration Curve Calculations
          Indicators for Acid Base Titrations
          Indicator End Point

          Acetic Acid Concentration in Vinegar by Direct Titration

    Back Titrations (indirect titrations)
          Back Titration Calculations
REDOX Titrations
          REDOX Titration Calculations
              Ethanol REDOX Titrations (Wine or Beer Analysis)
              Hypochlorite REDOX Titrations (Bleach Analysis)
Complexometric Titrations
    Total Hardness in Hard Water
    Calcium Ion Concentration in Hard Water
Instrumental Techniques
      Chromatography Overview
          Paper Chromatography
          Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC)
          Gas Chromatography (GC or GLC)
          High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)
      Spectroscopy Overview
          Flame Tests
          Emission (Atomic) Spectroscopy
          Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS)
          UV-Visible Spectroscopy
      Determination of Structure
          Infrared Spectroscopy
          Mass Spectroscopy (isotopes)
          Mass Spectroscopy (structural identification)
          1H NMR Spectroscopy
          13C NMR Spectroscopy

Environmental Chemistry

          Carbon Cycle
          Nitrogen Cycle
          Ozone Layer and Ozone Depletion
          Photochemical Smog
          Greenhouse Gases and Effect
          Acid Rain
          Analysis of Water

Industrial Chemistry

          Green Chemistry Principles
              Atom Economy (Atom Utilisation)
          Uses and Production of Ammonia (Haber Process)
          Uses and Production of Sulfuric Acid (Contact Process)
          Uses and Production of Sodium Carbonate (Solvay Process)
          Uses and Production of Sodium Hydroxide (Electrolytic Processes)
          Production of Ethene (ethylene)

          Polymers and Polymerization
          Addition Polymerisation
              Production of Polythene (polyethylene)
              Production of Polvinyl chloride (PVC)
          Condensation Polymerisation
              Production of Polyamides (nylons)

Medicinal Chemistry (Drugs and Pharmaceuticals)

          Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid)
          Paracetamol (acetaminophen)


Reactions Involving Metals

          Metal + Water
          Metal + Non-oxidizing Acid
          Metal + Oxygen

Activity Series

Extracting Metals

Metal Extraction Concepts

    Smelting Oxides
        Carbon Reduction Method

    Smelting Sulfides
          Copper Sulfides

    Electrolytic Extraction
        Copper : Electrowinning
        Aluminium Production : Hall-Heroult Cell
        Sodium Production : Down's Cell

Refining Metals


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